“What are now called “hybrid threats” are not new. Nations, and sometimes non-national groups, long have employed a variety of means short of war, simultaneously, to influence others. What is new is the virtual realm—cyber attacks to ferret out, then strategically release, discrediting information, and social media, to lower the entry cost for massive propaganda campaigns. Both were on vivid display in the Russian intervention in the 2016 US presidential election, which also suggested some limits and possible counters.”
Greg Treverton, SMA Executive Advisor, left the chairmanship of the National Intelligence Council in January 2017. He has written widely on strategy and intelligence, and served in government on the Hill and on the National Security Council staff.
Alicia Chen is a senior Political Science and International Relations major at the University of Southern California. She is currently a research assistant at USC’s Korean Studies Institute and has previously worked at the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars.
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